What does the post-Renaissance modern man base his theology on? How much does the foundation of his theology relate to and fit with Islam? Can we read the Qurʾan in a way that corresponds and is relevant to the modern world?
whereas Naʾini primarily dealt with concrete political issues that were relevant in his day, Ayatullah Jawadi explores governance much more philosophically.
on the issue of Prophetic ijtihād, Ayatullah Jawadi’s opinion is quite similar to Shaykh Jumaʿa’s in that he sees ijtihād as a virtue for a normal person, notfor someone who has entered the realm of prophecy, has access to revelation, and is directly inspired from God
Ayatullah Jawadi Amuli agrees with Sartre in emphasizing the dialectic method in education. And yet, Sartre sees this dialectic, this question-and-response method to be based upon the individual inclinations and particularities of each side
And it is precisely here, in the various issues related to religious variance and plurality, where the two scholars also differ. Dr. Nasr argues for the reasonability and permissibility of a form of religious pluralism, whereas Ayatullah Jawadi rejects the conception of pluralism that is most widely understood.
The difference between the Ayatullah Jawadi’s approach and Dr. Soroush’s approach can be located primarily in terms of their differing theoretical frameworks.